Rating spruce-fir stands for spruce budworm damage in eastern North America.

Cover of: Rating spruce-fir stands for spruce budworm damage in eastern North America. |

Published by U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Cooperative State Research Service in [Washington, D.C.?] .

Written in English

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  • Spruce -- Diseases and pests -- United States.,
  • Fir -- Diseases and pests -- United States.,
  • Spruce budworm -- United States.

Edition Notes

Book details

SeriesSpruce budworms handbook, Agriculture handbook -- no. 636, Agriculture handbook (United States. Dept. of Agriculture) -- no. 636.
ContributionsUnited States. Cooperative State Research Service, Canada/United States Spruce Budworms Program.
The Physical Object
Pagination22 p. :
Number of Pages22
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL22164122M

Download Rating spruce-fir stands for spruce budworm damage in eastern North America.

Get this from a library. Rating spruce-fir stands for spruce budworm damage in eastern North America. [John A Witter; Ann Lynch; United States. Forest Service. Cooperative State Research Service.; Canada/United States Spruce Budworms Program.]. Get this from a library. Spruce budworms handbook: rating spruce-fir stands for spruce budworm damage in eastern North America.

[United States. Cooperative State Research Service.; Canada/United States Spruce Budworms Program.;]. Rating spruce-fir stands for spruce budworm damage in Eastern North America. (AGR:IND) Abstract Citations; Related Articles; Data; BioEntities; External Links ' ' Witter JA, ' ' Lynch AM Agriculture Handbook - United States Department of Agriculture.

[01 Feb ()]. Abstract. The spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Clemens), (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) was first described from specimens collected in Virginia, 17 but this native insect occurs primarily in the northern boreal forest from Newfoundland west to the McKenzie River near 66°N.

53 The most extensive and destructive outbreaks have occurred in the maritime provinces (New Cited by: Abstract. One of the most striking ecological features of the mountains of the eastern United States and adjacent Canada is the high elevation forest dominated by the needle-leaved, evergreen genera Picea (spruce) and Abies (fir).

Spruce-fir forests are found on the upper slopes of the Adirondack and Appalachian Mountains, over an area that extends from western North Cited by: northeastern North America. The budworm larvae primarily defoliate balsam fir and white spruce.

Every 30 to 50 years large scale SBW outbreaks cause widespread top kill and tree mortality. Mature and over mature balsam fir dominated stands are most severely damaged. Susceptible stands often lose 60 to 80 percent of the fir and 20 to 40 percent of the spruce. Mature fir stands.

Vulnerability of forest types to spruce budworm damage in Newfoundland: an empirical approach based on large sample size. For. Ecol. Manage., A clear relationship between stand characteristics and spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.)) damage was present only for stand composition and budworm damage in Newfoundland Cited by: 3.

the western spruce budworm. larch stands, sustained larval feed-ing and severance of new shoots causes top deformity and can reduce height growth by as much as 25 to 30 percent. Severe defoliation and topkilling predispose young trees to secondary insects and wood-decaying fungi.

Mature stands.— The greatest impact from budworm defoliation in File Size: KB. The spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) is a major insect defoliator of softwood species in northeastern North commercial importance stems from periodic epidemics during which it damages extensively the spruce and fir on which the pulp and paper industry by: Eastern spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana)larva.

Photo/Jerald E. Dewey, USDA Forest Service, Nicholas C. Bolgiano W. Foster Avenue State College, PA [email protected] Cause Effect& Changes in Boreal Bird Irruptions in Eastern North America Relative to the s Spruce Budworm InfestationFile Size: 1MB.

The eastern spruce budworm is the most destructive and widely distributed forest defoliator in North America. The destructive phase of this pest is the larva or caterpillar stage. Lengthy large scale population outbreaks have caused widespread mortality in spruce/fir forests.

Size: KB. spruce budworm is the most destructive pest of spruce and fir forests in North America the larvae are wasteful feeders as they only eat partial needles and then move on to other needles spruce budworm prefers balsam fir, but the name is associated with spruce as white spruce is a more desirable species historically to the forest industry.

Mortality Patterns Following Spruce Budworm Infestation in Unprotected Spruce-Fir Forests in Maine Dale S. Solomon, USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Research Station, P.O. Boxsawtimber class for high fir and high spruce stands.

In mixed spruce-fir and mixed-wood stands, however, stem density spruce-fir Spruce spruce-fir (- fir Cited by: outbreaks of spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferanaClem.) and the dynamics of the boreal forest. This system is one of the best studied because the budworm is the insect that causes the most damage of any insect in eastern North America (MacLean, ; Morin, ).

To. Spruce budworms handbook: predators of the spruce budworm U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Cooperative State Research Service, - Predation (Biology) - 77 pages 0 Reviews.

The Eastern spruce budworm is the most widely distributed and destructive forest defoliator in North America. It has caused more damage to Nova Scotian softwood forests than any other insect.

The spruce budworm causes the most damage in overmature balsam fir stands. White, black, and red spruce are also defoliated.

OtherFile Size: KB. forest insect pest in andeastern North America. Millions of acres of spruce-fir forests have been damaged by the spruce budworm in eastern Canada and in the North-central and Northeastern United States from Min- nesota to Maine.

Recorded outbreaks of the budworm date back to the know early 's; but in the 20th century. Western spruce budworm is the most widely distributed forest defoliator in western North America. Budworms have a one-year life cycle and are actually a small moth at full maturity. Here in the West, there can be severe infestations in healthy Douglas-fir, white fir and spruce.

spruce budworm population oscillations. Conclusions were based on an intensive exami-nation of mortality factors, and survival of large larvae was determined to be a principal factor in spruce budworm generation survival (Royama ) and, therefore, in spruce budworm population cycles.

However, the study area constitutes less than % of the. Some Factors Affecting Spruce Budworm Populations 7 Overview 10 Selected References 10 Chapter 2: Integrated Pest Management—Gary A. Simmons, Wilf Cuff, Bruce A.

Montgomery, and J. Michael Hardman 11 Basic Biology of the Spruce Budworm/Spruce-Fir Forest 13 Knowledge Base Needed to Make Management Decisions The eastern spruce budworm is one of the most destructive insects of fir and spruce forests throughout Canada and the eastern United States.

[14] For biological methods, birds are important in controlling populations of the eastern spruce budworm below outbreak levels, [15] and the parasitic wasp Trichogramma minutum was investigated as a Class: Insecta. Objective: To describe several hazard-rating systems for C.

fumiferana that provide information for short-term management decisions. Abstract: Spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Clemens), is the most destructive defoliator of balsam fir, Abies balsamea (L.) Mill., and white spruce, Picea glauca (Moench) Voss, in eastern North America.

The last three larval instars. The spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) is one of the most destructive native insects in the northern spruce and fir forests of the Eastern United States and of the time, the number of budworms remains at a low level. However, every forty years or so, the population of budworms explodes to huge numbers, devastating the forest and destroying many trees.

Effectiveness of spruce budworm spraying in New Brunswick in protecting the spruce component of spruce–fir stands Article in Canadian Journal of Forest Research 14(2) February   The spruce budworm is a normal part of forest ecosystems in Canada.

However a cyclical surge in population typically occurs every years which can lead to the defoliation of tens of millions. Spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) is a native insect that defoliates needleleaf trees, especially balsam fir (Abies balsamea) and spruces (Picea spp.), in northern North America.

Spruce budworm can defoliate millions of hectares of forest during an infestation, depressing regional economies that depend on the timber industry. Ecosystems, though, can benefit from spruce budworm Cited by: Through tree ring studies of virgin stands and the beams in historic homes, budworm outbreaks in eastern Quebec have been charted since Researchers here found infestations in Big Reed Forest Reserve in, andand other infestations are noted in historical accounts.

Western spruce budworm outbreaks may result in significant modification of susceptible stands by reducing tree density and cover. Losses of existing cover may degrade the quality of habitat available for some wildlife species such as the northern spotted owl, and associated fuel accumulations may increase the risk of catastrophic wildfire.

Add +2 if the spruce budworm population is increasing or −2 if the population is declining. Rate each stand based on the estimated future defoliation based on the following: Average egg mass density Expected defoliation Rating Pure Fir or mixed spruce-fir Pure spruce Percent Intensity 1.

Recommendations for improvement of spruce budworm population and damage survey methods in the state of Maine [Simmons, Gary A] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Recommendations for improvement of spruce budworm population and damage survey methods in the state of MaineAuthor: Gary A Simmons.

Spruce budworm damage on balsam fir and white spruce, Kabetogama Peninsula, (St. Paul, Minn.: Minnesota Dept. of Agriculture ; U.S.

Forest Service, State & Private Forestry, Forest Pest Management, ), by United States. Forest Pest Management and Minnesota. Dept. of Agriculture (page images at HathiTrust; US access only).

A natural resistance gene against spruce budworm in the white spruce has been discovered. The breakthrough paves the way to identifying and selecting naturally resistant trees to replant forests. Febru Photo credit: Luther Caverly.

Breaking the budworm. In the forests of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Quebec, and New England, a pest called the spruce budworm has long been enacting a quiet takedown that threatens to destroy the natural landscape and devastate communities dependent on forestry.

ss Outbreak At its peak, the last SBW outbreak, which lasted from tocovered about million acres across eastern Canada and Maine. The outbreak was severe and produced dead and dying stands of trees that could be seen to the horizons in some areas.

A logging sale proposed on the San Juan National Forest north of Dolores is tapping into the spruce and fir market, but it is also designed to combat the Western spruce budworm infestation.

A spruce is a tree of the genus Picea / p aɪ ˈ s iː ə /, a genus of about 35 species of coniferous evergreen trees in the family Pinaceae, found in the northern temperate and boreal regions of the s are large trees, from about 20–60 m (about 60– ft) tall when mature, and have whorled branches and conical form.

They can be distinguished from other members of the pine Clade: Tracheophytes. Hubert Morin, Yves Jardon and Réjean Gagnon, Relationship Between Spruce Budworm Outbreaks and Forest Dynamics in Eastern North America, Plant Disturbance Ecology, /B/, (), ().

Spruce budworm (SBW; Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.)) defoliation can cause severe growth reduction and mortality to spruce-fir (Picea-Abies) species in eastern North America.

effective in maintaining budworm populations at low densities (Crawford et al. The present study tests that hypothesis-specifically, that bird predation is of sufficient magnitude to limit increases from low to high density in spruce budworm populations.

METHODS Spruce-fir stands containing spruce budworm pop. There was $18 million (over four years) to prevent the spread of spruce budworm; $28 million (over two years) for the National Energy Board to review applications; $10 million (over two years) to improve snow-mobile trails; $3 million (over three years) for the Earth Rangers; and $92 million (overfive years) for the Royal Canadian Mounted Police to chase after illegal cigarettes.

Eastern spruce budworm: Management approaches in Minnesota’s forests discusses the life cycle and symptoms of spruce budworm and management strategies to maintain healthy and productive spruce-fir forests in Minnesota.

In Minnesota, spruce budworm activity has been observed every year since at least   Budworm caterpillars feed on new shoots, which eventually can kill older and stressed trees.

The DNR says the hardest hit places this .

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